2016-17-Sixth Grade Social Studies First Semester Exam Study guide-Mr. Nesbit
1. How did Islam spread to North Africa? Along trade routes from the Middle East/ Muslim traders.
2. What two things brought wealth to the African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai? gold and salt
3. Under which Chinese dynasty did gunpowder originate in? Han Dynasty
4. Which Byzantine emperor was responsible for organizing and simplifying old Roman law into a new code?
5. What is Byzantine culture best known for? preserving Greek and Roman culture-(architecture,mythology,democracy,philosophy)
6. What did the eastern portion of the Roman Empire become known as? Byzantine Empire
7. Why did Constantinople become the center of the Byzantine Empire? Its location made it the crossroads of Europe and Asia.
8. What type of society needed access to a variety of raw materials to survive? Hunter-gatherer (Paleolithic Era)
9. Why were Hunter-gatherers nomadic? (why did they migrate?) to find/follow food/animals
10. Farmers could improve the quality and quantity of food produced once they learned what? Domestication of plants and animals, irrigation
11. By forming permanent settlements, early people were able to organize their social groups. Characteristics of these social groups include what? some form of government, tamed livestock, permanent dwellings
12. Where is the Indus River Civilization located? See map (b)
13. Where is the Nile River Civilization located? See map (c)
14. Where is the Huang He Civilization located? See map (d)
15. Where is the Tigris-Euphrates River(s) Civilization located? See map (a)
16. Who invented cuneiform? Sumerians in Mesopotamia
17. Who invented hieroglyphics? Egypt
18. What was the purpose of the pyramids? Which civilization perfected the building of pyramids? tombs for the pharaohs
19. What does “specialization” mean? With an agricultural surplus, early civilizations could have different people do different things. Some people were in the army, some were farmers, some collected taxes, and others built of roads. (learning a skill)
20. What is the difference between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic eras? Paleolithic-lived in caves,hunted,gathered food, had fire, stone weapons. Neolithic-developed agriculture, domesticated plants, animals, permanent settlements
21. What did the development of agriculture lead to? Specialization of jobs, development of language, government
22. What were early economies based on? Agriculture
23. Which development was an important contribution of Muslim culture to civilization? advances in science and medicine, math
24. Who was the founder of Islam? Mohammad
25. What is the name of the holy book of Islam? The Quran/Koran What is Islam based on? The Five Pillars
26. What is the world’s first major monotheistic religion called? Judaism (Jewish, Hebrew), Christianity branched out of Judaism
27. What is the name of the holy book of Judaism? The Torah/Old Testament
28. Who did Rome go to war with for control of the Mediterranean? Carthage
29. What event signaled the end of the Roman republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire with an emperor? The assassination of Julius Caesar by the Roman senate
30. Who was the first emperor of the Roman Empire? Octavian/ Augustus Caesar-when Octavian defeated Marc Antony-ended civil war
31. What development had the greatest influence on the culture of North Africa and the Middle East? Religion of Islam
32. Early Christianity was spread through which empire? The Roman Empire-later known as The Holy Roman Empire
33. Which Roman emperor made Christianity the MAIN religion of Rome? Constantine-for which the city of Constantinople is named.
34. Which is a sacred city to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam? Jerusalem-which is in Israel
35. What civilization is credited with being the world’s first democracy, or government in which people ruled or had a voice? Athens, Greece
36. What type of democracy did the Romans create that we use in the USA today? A republic
37. Ancient Greece was home to many great philosophers. What philosopher taught that the way to seek truth is through a series of questions and answers? Socrates-who taught Plato-who taught Aristotle-who taught Macedonian conqueror-Alexander the Great-who spread Hellenistic/Greek culture to the places he conquered
38. Who was the Macedonian responsible for spreading Greek/Hellenistic culture to Asia and Africa? Alexander the Great
39. In 509 B.C. Rome set up a form of government which included a leader and a lawmaking body. What is this type of government called? A republic
40. What was the early Roman religion like? Their gods and goddess were similar to Greek gods and goddesses.
41. What were the main reasons why the Roman Empire collapsed? Heavy, high taxes, corrupt government officials, invasions from Germanic and other groups
42. What are the primary writings of classical Hinduism called? The Vedas-What is the sacred book of Islam called? The Quran/Koran-What is the sacred book of Judaism called? The Torah/Old Testament what are the two sacred books of Christianity called? The Bible-it includes the (Jewish) Old Testament and the New Testament (about teachings of Jesus)
43. What was of the trade route that connected Chinese civilization and goods to the Roman Empire called? The Silk Road
44. What trade made the West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai rich and powerful? Trading of salt and gold
45. Give Examples of Chinese contributions: porcelain, wood block printing, gunpowder, fireworks,*silk,-writing is symbols, pictographs, paper, seismograph Give Examples of Chinese contributions: porcelain, wood block printing, gunpowder, fireworks,*silk,- Used in apparel and art, silk became the staple of trade with the east and, more than any other product, was a symbol of ancient China. Writing is symbols, pictographs, paper, seismograph
46. What West African city was known as a center of trade and learning in the 1300s? Timbuktu
Caste System –each caste had distinct roles in society and caste guided members in issues such
as occupation, foods eaten, and marriage.
Sumer/ Mesopotamia contributions-achievements:
Civilizations/cultures that developed here were the Sumerian, Babylonian, Phoenician; -between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Created ziggurats-temples in center of city
Cuneiform-world’s first known writing
Developed in the Indus River valley (Harappan) worship Hinduism-polytheistic Hinduism and Buddhist –karma, reincarnation
Hinduism is the world’s largest polytheistic religion with it pantheon of gods
and goddesses seen as part of a universal soul/deity known as the Brahman.
One major concept is reincarnation, a belief in a cycle of life, death, rebirth –writing was Sanskrit
Origins: Began in India and incorporated much of Hinduism in its practice. Founder(s): Siddhartha Gautama was an Indian prince raised in a lifestyle of luxury and comfort who, upon encountering the misery and suffering of the poor in the streets, began
to question the meaning of life. Gautama left his city and wandered through the land. He
became know as Buddha, “Enlightened One”.
Four Noble Truths
1. Life is full of pain and suffering.
2. Human desire causes this suffering.
3. By putting an end to desire, humans can end suffering.
4. Humans can end desire by following the Eightfold Path.
Judaism-first major monotheistic religion-Founder(s): Abraham is the “Father of the Hebrews.” Moses was the law-giver and author of the first books of the Torah. Yahweh (God) Hebrews/Jewish
Origins: Grew from and is an extension of Judaism – with Jesus Christ as the Messiah.
Founder(s): Jesus Christ is the originator of Christianity. Early significant leaders were
Paul, Peter, and John. Christianity was adopted as the
official religion of the Roman Empire.
Origins: Originated in the Arabian Peninsula in the city of Mecca.
Principles: Islam is the world’s third great monotheistic religion and sees itself as
fulfillment of God’s (Allah) .The Quran (Koran) contains the sacred
writings of Islam. The most important beliefs/acts are known as the Five Pillars of Islam.
Origins: China during the Zhou (Chou) Dynasty. After the end of feudalism crime was
rampant and Confucius spoke of returning to the moral standards of the ancients.
Founder(s): Kung Fu-Tzu (Confucius) 551-479 BC
Principles: It is not a religion but rather is an ethical code dealing with the moral
character of individuals, society, and government.
Origins: Grew from ancient Chinese philosophies that were merged into one basic
teaching. In some ways it grew from a reaction to the spread of Confucianism and
Principles: Tao (Dao) means “The Way” (or the Path) and it’s a series of philosophical
teachings that focuses on achieving balance and harmony in the universe, and in one’s