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Study Guide for 1st Semester Mid-term Exam
12/16/2016

2016-17-Sixth Grade Social Studies First Semester Exam Study guide-Mr. Nesbit

1. How did Islam spread to North Africa? Along trade routes from the Middle East/ Muslim traders.

2. What two things brought wealth to the African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai? gold and salt

3. Under which Chinese dynasty did gunpowder originate in? Han Dynasty

4. Which Byzantine emperor was responsible for organizing and simplifying old Roman law into a new code?

Justinian Code

5. What is Byzantine culture best known for? preserving Greek and Roman culture-(architecture,mythology,democracy,philosophy)

6. What did the eastern portion of the Roman Empire become known as? Byzantine Empire

7. Why did Constantinople become the center of the Byzantine Empire? Its location made it the crossroads of Europe and Asia.

8. What type of society needed access to a variety of raw materials to survive? Hunter-gatherer (Paleolithic Era)

9. Why were Hunter-gatherers nomadic? (why did they migrate?) to find/follow food/animals

10. Farmers could improve the quality and quantity of food produced once they learned what? Domestication of plants and animals, irrigation

11. By forming permanent settlements, early people were able to organize their social groups. Characteristics of these social groups include what? some form of government, tamed livestock, permanent dwellings

12. Where is the Indus River Civilization located? See map (b)

13. Where is the Nile River Civilization located? See map (c)

14. Where is the Huang He Civilization located? See map (d)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15. Where is the Tigris-Euphrates River(s) Civilization located? See map (a)

16. Who invented cuneiform? Sumerians in Mesopotamia

17. Who invented hieroglyphics? Egypt

18. What was the purpose of the pyramids? Which civilization perfected the building of pyramids? tombs for the pharaohs

19. What does “specialization” mean? With an agricultural surplus, early civilizations could have different people do different things. Some people were in the army, some were farmers, some collected taxes, and others built of roads. (learning a skill)

20. What is the difference between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic eras? Paleolithic-lived in caves,hunted,gathered food, had fire, stone weapons. Neolithic-developed agriculture, domesticated plants, animals, permanent settlements

21. What did the development of agriculture lead to? Specialization of jobs, development of language, government

22. What were early economies based on? Agriculture

23. Which development was an important contribution of Muslim culture to civilization? advances in science and medicine, math

24. Who was the founder of Islam? Mohammad

25. What is the name of the holy book of Islam? The Quran/Koran What is Islam based on? The Five Pillars

26. What is the world’s first major monotheistic religion called? Judaism (Jewish, Hebrew), Christianity branched out of Judaism

27. What is the name of the holy book of Judaism? The Torah/Old Testament

28. Who did Rome go to war with for control of the Mediterranean? Carthage

29. What event signaled the end of the Roman republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire with an emperor? The assassination of Julius Caesar by the Roman senate

30. Who was the first emperor of the Roman Empire? Octavian/ Augustus Caesar-when Octavian defeated Marc Antony-ended civil war

31. What development had the greatest influence on the culture of North Africa and the Middle East? Religion of Islam

32. Early Christianity was spread through which empire? The Roman Empire-later known as The Holy Roman Empire

33. Which Roman emperor made Christianity the MAIN religion of Rome? Constantine-for which the city of Constantinople is named.

34. Which is a sacred city to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam? Jerusalem-which is in Israel

35. What civilization is credited with being the world’s first democracy, or government in which people ruled or had a voice? Athens, Greece

36. What type of democracy did the Romans create that we use in the USA today? A republic

37. Ancient Greece was home to many great philosophers. What philosopher taught that the way to seek truth is through a series of questions and answers? Socrates-who taught Plato-who taught Aristotle-who taught Macedonian conqueror-Alexander the Great-who spread Hellenistic/Greek culture to the places he conquered

38. Who was the Macedonian responsible for spreading Greek/Hellenistic culture to Asia and Africa? Alexander the Great

39. In 509 B.C. Rome set up a form of government which included a leader and a lawmaking body. What is this type of government called? A republic

40. What was the early Roman religion like? Their gods and goddess were similar to Greek gods and goddesses.

41. What were the main reasons why the Roman Empire collapsed? Heavy, high taxes, corrupt government officials, invasions from Germanic and other groups

42. What are the primary writings of classical Hinduism called? The Vedas-What is the sacred book of Islam called? The Quran/Koran-What is the sacred book of Judaism called? The Torah/Old Testament what are the two sacred books of Christianity called? The Bible-it includes the (Jewish) Old Testament and the New Testament (about teachings of Jesus)

43. What was of the trade route that connected Chinese civilization and goods to the Roman Empire called? The Silk Road

44. What trade made the West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai rich and powerful? Trading of salt and gold

45. Give Examples of Chinese contributions: porcelain, wood block printing, gunpowder, fireworks,*silk,-writing is symbols, pictographs, paper, seismograph Give Examples of Chinese contributions: porcelain, wood block printing, gunpowder, fireworks,*silk,- Used in apparel and art, silk became the staple of trade with the east and, more than any other product, was a symbol of ancient China. Writing is symbols, pictographs, paper, seismograph

46. What West African city was known as a center of trade and learning in the 1300s? Timbuktu

 

Add:

Caste System –each caste had distinct roles in society and caste guided members in issues such

as occupation, foods eaten, and marriage.

 

Sumer/ Mesopotamia contributions-achievements:

Civilizations/cultures that developed here were the Sumerian, Babylonian, Phoenician; -between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Created ziggurats-temples in center of city

Cuneiform-world’s first known writing

Hammurabi’s Code.

 

Ancient India

Developed in the Indus River valley (Harappan) worship Hinduism-polytheistic Hinduism and Buddhist –karma, reincarnation

Hinduism is the world’s largest polytheistic religion with it pantheon of gods

and goddesses seen as part of a universal soul/deity known as the Brahman.

One major concept is reincarnation, a belief in a cycle of life, death, rebirth –writing was Sanskrit

BUDDHISM:

Origins: Began in India and incorporated much of Hinduism in its practice. Founder(s): Siddhartha Gautama was an Indian prince raised in a lifestyle of luxury and comfort who, upon encountering the misery and suffering of the poor in the streets, began

to question the meaning of life. Gautama left his city and wandered through the land. He

became know as Buddha, “Enlightened One”.

Four Noble Truths

1. Life is full of pain and suffering.

2. Human desire causes this suffering.

3. By putting an end to desire, humans can end suffering.

4. Humans can end desire by following the Eightfold Path.

Major religions-

Judaism-first major monotheistic religion-Founder(s): Abraham is the “Father of the Hebrews.” Moses was the law-giver and author of the first books of the Torah. Yahweh (God) Hebrews/Jewish

 

CHRISTIANITY:

Origins: Grew from and is an extension of Judaism – with Jesus Christ as the Messiah.

Founder(s): Jesus Christ is the originator of Christianity. Early significant leaders were

Paul, Peter, and John. Christianity was adopted as the

official religion of the Roman Empire.

ISLAM:

Origins: Originated in the Arabian Peninsula in the city of Mecca.

Founder(s): Mohammed

Principles: Islam is the world’s third great monotheistic religion and sees itself as

fulfillment of God’s (Allah) .The Quran (Koran) contains the sacred

writings of Islam. The most important beliefs/acts are known as the Five Pillars of Islam.

CONFUCIANISM:

Origins: China during the Zhou (Chou) Dynasty. After the end of feudalism crime was

rampant and Confucius spoke of returning to the moral standards of the ancients.

Founder(s): Kung Fu-Tzu (Confucius) 551-479 BC

Principles: It is not a religion but rather is an ethical code dealing with the moral

character of individuals, society, and government.

TAOISM:

Origins: Grew from ancient Chinese philosophies that were merged into one basic

teaching. In some ways it grew from a reaction to the spread of Confucianism and

Buddhism.

Founder(s): Lao-Tse

Principles: Tao (Dao) means “The Way” (or the Path) and it’s a series of philosophical

teachings that focuses on achieving balance and harmony in the universe, and in one’s

life.